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翻譯常識(七)2012.10.27

英、漢相同點:“主語+謂語+賓語”(SVO)或“施事+行為+受事”為基本語序

英、漢相異點:句內的語序的靈活性,以及定語、狀語等次要成分位置的差異,漢譯英需要調整語序句內主要成分位置的調整

沙發上坐著一個人。A man was sitting on a couch.

馬可·波羅的中國之行,給他留下最深刻印象的是杭州西湖之秀美。The beauty of the West Lake in Hangzhou was what impressed Marco Polo most during his trip to China.

狀語位置的調整 漢語狀語的位置一般在主語和謂語之間,呈“主語→狀語→謂語→賓語”模式;英語狀語一般出現在賓語后的句尾,呈“主語→謂語→賓語→狀語”模式。

1) 我們明天上午九時動身。We are going to start at nine tomorrow morning.

2) 這本書是三天前買的。The book was bought three days ago.

3) 他每晚都要看電視。He watches TV every evening.

4) 在機器中很多能量是由于部件之間的摩擦而損失的。In a machine a great deal of energy is lost because of the friction between its parts.

5) 他們很細心地觀察化學變化。They observed the chemical reaction with great care.They observed with great care the chemical reaction.

6) 他們肩并肩地以瘋狂速度向那座石塔奔去。They ran side by side at a fantastic speed towards the stone pagoda.Side by side and at a fantastic speed they ran towards the stone pagoda.Side by side they ran at a fantastic speed towards the stone pagoda.

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